Business insolvencies jumped by more than 41 per cent in 2023, according to data released Friday by Canada’s top financial regulator.
The report from the Office of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy showed that the total number of insolvencies — meaning those filed by both businesses and consumers — was up by 23.6 per cent last year.
The high insolvency rates for businesses are “telling a story that we’ve been a little concerned about, and that is essentially that we’re seeing a very tough economic climate for a lot of businesses” amid low economic activity, said Pedro Antunes, chief economist at the Conference Board of Canada.
“Profits have plummeted and we’ve seen the stresses of CEBA loan repayments due, and perhaps other stresses coming into play, and [we’re] starting to see those bankruptcy numbers coming up sharply,” he said, adding that we might start to see more job losses in the coming months.
The Canadian Association of Insolvency and Restructuring Professionals (CAIRP) said in a statement that Friday’s numbers marked the sharpest increase in business insolvencies in 36 years of records. Analysts were expecting businesses to be hit hard in 2023, with many having fallen behind on their pandemic loan repayments.
Cost of living a major factor
Finance Minister Chrystia Freeland said on Jan. 23 that a quarter of small businesses that took out a Canadian emergency business account loan had missed the repayment-with-partial-forgiveness deadline of Jan. 18.
The insolvency numbers take bankruptcies and creditor proposals into account. The latter is when a person in debt offers a formal proposal to their creditors asking for a different arrangement to pay back the money they owe. They might pay a percentage of their original debt or negotiate the repayment deadline, or a combination of both.
Richard Golhar, a licensed insolvency trustee who assists clients with such arrangements, says phones are ringing off the hook at his Toronto-based firm.
“There’s a hum when you go to a place and it’s very busy. We’ve got that energy,” said Goldhar. His firm files bankruptcy or bankruptcy proposals on behalf of individuals and businesses, then helps them restructure their debts.
Consumer insolvencies alone rose by 23 per cent last year, according to Friday’s report. Goldhar said that the cost of living is the highest contributing factor to personal bankruptcy among his clients.
“Food costs, car costs, gas costs, just the daily cost of life,” he said.
Cost of Living4:41Bad business
Between these expenses, plus mounting credit card debts and skyrocketing payday loans (short-term loans that have expensive fees), as well as elevated interest rates for those refinancing their mortgages, Goldhar said his clients are dealing with many layers of financial stress.
Credit card debt is an especially significant factor, with total balances reaching an all-time high of $11.34 billion in the fall, a 16 per cent rise from the same period last year, according to a December report by credit bureau Equifax. (That figure doesn’t include mortgage debt.)
Numbers back up after pandemic lows
Consumer bankruptcies plunged to a record low at the start of the pandemic, with only 6,700 people filing for insolvency or filing a creditor proposal in April 2020, down 43 per cent from a year before. The government had introduced financial supports and mortgage payments were deferred.
“It’s been an excessive increase from the pandemic time to now, because during the pandemic … the filing numbers went to such a dismal lower number that the uptick sounds crazy since then,” Goldhar said.
The low bankruptcy levels that began during the pandemic have “stayed that way for households up until very recently,” said Antunes.
Now, those numbers are starting to come up, especially for creditor proposals.
“That means that, essentially, households have gotten themselves into too much trouble, and they’re trying to bargain their way out of a tough situation,” said Antunes.
Wages are a factor, too. While wages have been on the rise, they aren’t keeping pace with inflation, in turn forcing people to borrow money while interest rates are still high, at five per cent.
Wages are also playing into the uptick of business insolvencies among Goldhar’s clients, he said, as employees ask for better salaries and businesses struggle to balance those increases.